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Measurement of Physical Properties
The various physical properties of dimension stones are tested by means of the procedures documented by ASTM. ASTM also publishes standards for the major stone types, listing the minimum/maximum values to be expected from a particular stone type in a particular test. It should be noted that there are many stones that do not meet these values, yet have demonstrated satisfactory performance in a variety of applications. This table should then be considered to be more of a general guide than an absolute pass/fail gauge.
Table of Dimension Stone Testing Values per ASTM Standard Specifications
  Absorption (max) per ASTM C 97 Density (min) per ASTM C 97 Modulus of Rupture (min) ASTM C 99(9)(10) Compressive Strength (min) ASTM C 170 Abrasion Resistance (min) ASTM C 241 Flexural Strength (min) ASTM C 880
Stone Type ASTM Standard % lbs/ft3 kg/m3 lbs/in2 Mpa lbs/in2 Mpa Ha lbs/in2 Mpa
Granite ASTM C 615 0.40% 160 2,560 1,500 10.34 19,000 131 25 1,200 8.27
Marble ASTM C 503 0.20% 162 2,590 1,000 6.89 7,500 52 10 1,000 6.89
Limestone (1) ASTM C 568 12.00% 110 1,760 400 2.76 1,800 12 10 n/a n/a
Limestone (2) ASTM C 568 7.50% 135 2,160 500 3.45 4,000 28 10 n/a n/a
Limestone (3) ASTM C 568 3.00% 160 2,560 1,000 6.89 8,000 55 10 n/a n/a
Quartz - Based(4) ASTM C 616 8.00% 125 2,000 350 2.41 4,000 28 2 n/a n/a
Quartz - Based(5) ASTM C 616 3.00% 150 2,400 1,000 6.89 10,000 69 8 n/a n/a
Quartz - Based(6) ASTM C 616 1.00% 160 2,560 2,000 13.79 20,000 138 8 n/a n/a
Slate (7) ASTM C 629 0.25% n/a n/a 9,000 62.05 n/a n/a 8 n/a n/a
Slate (8) ASTM C 629 0.45% n/a n/a 7,200 49.64 n/a n/a 8 n/a n/a
Notes:
1) Low Density Limestone
2) Medium Density Limestone
3) High Density Limestone
4) Sandstone
5) Quartzitic Sandstone
6) Quartzite
7) For Exterior Use
8) For Interior Use
9) Test Procedure for Modulus of Rupture Testing of Slate is C 120.
10) Modulus of Rupture values for slate are taken across the grain.
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